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Exploring Sickle Cell Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Insights

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder affecting millions worldwide. It’s a condition that can profoundly impact the lives of those who live with it and their families. This blog will delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment insights, but first, we’ll talk about the genetic basis. SCD is an inherited disorder that is passed from parents to their children through their genes. A person must inherit a mutated gene from both parents to have this. Specifically, it’s caused by a mutation in the haemoglobin gene, a protein found in red blood cells- this is called haemoglobin S (HbS).


Sickle cell disease
Causes and diagnosis of sickle cell


Hemoglobin S and Red Blood Cells

In individuals with SCD, haemoglobin S causes red blood cells to take on a characteristic sickle shape rather than the typical round shape. These sickle-shaped cells are less flexible and can become stuck in blood vessels, leading to blockages, pain, and damage to organs and tissues.


Symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease

SCD can manifest with various symptoms, and the severity of the condition can vary from person to person. Some common symptoms include:

  1. Pain Crisis: One of the most characteristic features is the “pain crisis” or “sickle cell crisis.” These are sudden and severe episodes of pain that can last for hours to days. Pain crises occur when sickle cells block blood flow to an area.
  2. Anaemia: The cells are fragile and can break apart, leading to a shortage of red blood cells, which results in anaemia. Anaemia can cause fatigue, weakness, and paleness.
  3. Organ Damage: These cells can block blood flow to various organs, leading to damage. Organs commonly affected include the spleen, liver, lungs, brain, eyes, and bones.
  4. Infections: People with SCD are more susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by encapsulated bacteria.
  5. Jaundice: SCD can lead to the breakdown of red blood cells, releasing bilirubin, which causes yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice).
  6. Delayed Growth: Children with SCD may experience delayed growth and puberty.
  7. Pulmonary Hypertension: SCD can lead to increased pressure in the lungs’ blood vessels, a condition known as pulmonary hypertension.
Hemoglobin S and Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells


While there is currently no cure for Sickle Cell Disease, various treatments and management strategies can help improve the quality of life for individuals with SCD. Here are some key treatment insights:

  1. Pain Management: Pain crises are a hallmark of SCD, and pain management is a central aspect of treatment. Over-the-counter or prescription pain medications may be used to alleviate pain during crises. For severe pain, hospitalisation and stronger pain medications may be necessary.
  2. Blood Transfusions: In some cases, individuals with SCD may require blood transfusions to replace damaged red blood cells. Regular transfusions can help prevent complications, but they also carry risks and require close monitoring.
  3. Bone Marrow Transplant: A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, can be a curative option for some individuals with SCD. However, it is a complex and risky procedure unsuitable for everyone.
  4. Managing Complications: Individuals with SCD may need to manage various complications, including infections, anaemia, and organ damage. Regular check-ups and preventive measures can help in this regard.


Research in the field of SCD is currently ongoing, and there are several promising developments:

  1. Gene Therapy: Gene therapy can potentially correct the genetic mutation responsible for SCD.
  2. Fetal Hemoglobin Induction: Drugs that induce the production of fetal haemoglobin, which can inhibit the sickling of red blood cells, are being investigated.
  3. Pain Management: Advances in pain management strategies, including non-opioid options, are being explored to improve the management of pain crises.
  4. Targeted Therapies: New drugs targeting specific aspects of the disease, such as the adhesion of sickle cells to blood vessels, are under development.


While there is no cure for SCD, advances in research and treatment options provide hope for better management of the condition and the possibility of a remedy in the future. The importance of genotype compatibility in choosing a life partner cannot be overstated, especially concerning prevention. To avoid the possibility of having a child with SCD, it’s essential to know your genotype and that of your partner. Coming in for a simple genotype test at any of our test centres or booking one on our website is a proactive step to help you make informed decisions about your future together. By ensuring genotype compatibility, you protect the health and well-being of your potential children but also contribute to breaking the cycle of SCD within families.